The Blackfoot Tribe


Paragraph about
By:
Introduction
Raini
Environment
Alex
Clothing
Safa
Recreation
Joesph
Group needs
Muskan
Food
Radi
Tools/Weapons
Radi
Transportation
Muskan
Shelter
Raini
History
Safa
Arts/Crafts
Raini
Legends
Safa
Languages
Radi
Culture
Alex
Conclusion
Raini



INTRODUCTION
The Blackfoot/Siksika tribe, the name that came from the dark coloured shoes/moccasins they wear. Living in the northern plain(Montana, Idaho and Alberta Canada)lots of the Blackfoot tribe is still around living in our modern standards but doing their traditional things as usual. Read as you explore many different and unique features of our fascinating ancestors, The Blackfoot Tribe.By:Raini
RELIGON
The Blackfoot tribe’s religion was…. Dr. Brinton is an American Hero. Loads of Myths have been said about him, has suggested a more profound reason why such a name should be given to the Creator. He says: "The most important of all things to life is light. The Blackfoot tribe made him the chief god of the tribe. The Blackfoot tribe worship him day and night.Dr.Brinton is the creator of the Blackfoot tribe.Dr.Brinton also said the sun comes be for light. In ancient times the chief god of the Blackfoot tribe their Creator was Na'pi (Old Man).Na’pi means old man it is what they called the chief god. They also blessed there food before the ate tithe also a place where they worship there chief god in a part of a tipi. The stories, myths and legends play a big role in their everyday life for the Blackfoot people, such as their religions and their beliefs. Only the elders of the Blackfoot tribes are allowed to tell the tales. Sometimes the elders tell stories to people in other tribes so they can be hard to hear. George B. Grinnell knew load of stories from load of nations some like Blackfoot, Inuit tribe, Haida tribe ect.These are some pictures of the elders.in the ancient times the chief god of the tribe was called Na’pi it means old man .This is the nick names the used a long time ago. By:Joshph

ENVIRONMENT
The Blackfoot Tribe have a huge amount of land. They spread out from Montana, Idaho to Alberta, Canada. The seasons were very important to them. In the
 Where the Blackfoot lived
Where the Blackfoot lived
Fall, they traded expensive pieces of art. In summer, they stayed together in large groups. They also held ceremonies. In Spring, they had the biggest hunting seasons. Finally, in winter, they stayed together until winter was over. During that time, they told stories and legends to each other to keep each other occupied. The area they live in contains rivers, a few trees, cacti, grasses and sage, a flower-plant that grows in the Plains. They had the Rocky Mountains to give them shade and open plains to run around. But they were not alone. Bears and coyotes often visit them, as well as geese. These are the animals they like to hunt, along with buffalo. By: Alex

CLOTHING
Blackfoot clothing is a lot different from what we have now. Back then men wouldn't wear jeans and a t-shirt, they would wear buckskin tunics, with breech cloths and leggings. The men would put their hair in three long braids. The women on the other hand wore long deer skin dresses. With all sorts of jewellery such as bracelets, earrings, necklaces and more. They would make their jewellery by metal, seashells and beads. The women would also wear a beaded strap bag. Also unlike the men the women had a choice to put their hair in two braids or to leave their hair open. The women were the master minds they would make all the clothing including the men’s and would decorate the clothing by colourful beads, porcupine quills, elk teeth and more. The chiefs would wear feather headdresses made from feathers, beads, soft fur and more. On special occasions the women would decorate their hair with feathers. Nowadays some Blackfoot tribe members still wear moccasins and decorate their hair with feathers. Without any doubt I can say that their clothing and how they made it was difficult but it was really amazing.
By: Safa :)

Blackfoot woman
Blackfoot woman




RECREATION
Blackfoot man hunting in camouflage
Blackfoot man hunting in camouflage

This is what the Blackfoot tribe does for recreational activities. The women made weapons. The men hunted for food. The women did house hold chores, put tipis up, also gathered wild berries etc for food. The women also made clothes out of animal skin. The women cleaned a lot! Sometimes men would die hunting but it is not very likely though. Women made weapons from the animals that they hunted so the men could hunt. The women, men would teach their children would get told a story. Then they would pass it on to future generations. They would also do shy gazing, bird watching and much more. The children never went to school. Their elders taught them. All the children had dolls. There was a famous hoop game in the Blackfoot tribe. When babies were born the women would carry them in cradle boards. All the children from the Blackfoot tribe loved to hunt and fish with their fathers. In the past there was no time for games because there was so much chores to do .The Blackfoot tribe and other tribes would also go undercover dress as animals example as a wolf and hunt for dinner. By: Joseph


GROUP NEEDS
Blackfoot nation
I’m going to tell you about what Blackfoot did for their nation.
The Blackfoot nation was made up in 4 nations.
The nations were called piegan, siksika, northern piegan, and kainai also known as blood Indians.
And when they all came together they made a Blackfoot confederacy.
They all had separate governments, but they all were all leaded by a head chief.
But they mostly came together for religious celebrations.
Electing a leader
When it comes to electing a leader the Blackfoot people had a lot of leaders.
Maybe because they valued leaderships and chose chiefs who would run settlements wisely.
That’s probably why they had a chief for most of their things. At war time they would choose a war leader.
And during peace time they would elect a peace chief, meaning someone who could lead people to improve relations with other tribes.
Society
The Blackfoot people were all divided into different societies to which they belonged.
The warrior’s society is where the men prepared for war.
The religious society did special ceremonies and blessed the warriors good luck.
And the women’s society designed clothing, did quill work, cared for their children.
By: Muskan
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FOOD
The Blackfoot tribe had a diet that mainly consisted of meat. The Blackfoot had a diet that was very unhealthy; this was the fact that they lived in the prairies with limited food sources. The Blackfoot’s main food source was buffalo in fact 90% of their diet were from buffalo; because of this they had to follow the buffalo when they migrated for this reason their homes had to be able to move. The Blackfoot women also gathered wild berries and plants. The Blackfoot women also cooked the buffalo. When the Blackfoot women cooked they were told to use every part of the animal this was because they believed not to be wasteful of the things you have and not go against the creator. The Blackfoot women cooked many foods from buffalo and other animals like pemmican, depuyer, and in spring duck and waterfowl eggs. The Blackfoot made their foods by using many methods such as boiling their food, smoking their food in a smoke house and directly putting their foods over a fire. In conclusion the Blackfoot may have not had the best diet but they kept alive with it. (Stick around for more on how they cooked foods and how they used the buffalo) By:Radi

Pemmican-Ingredients-Choice of Buffalo Meat and Berry Paste
Pemmican
Pemmican

Pemmican was a very important food to the Blackfoot tribe. Pemmican was very important to the Blackfoot this is because it’s very dense, hearty, and nutritious. Pemmican was made from sliced buffalo meat and occasionally crushed berry paste women gathered. Pemmican was made by first drying your meat then the meat is minced and mixed with berry paste after that it would be held over a fire. Once cooked the meat goes in a bag as storage and can be used for several months by hunters on a buffalo killing. In conclusion pemmican may seem disgusting but it was a great food to the Blackfoot tribe.(pemmican) By:Radi

Depuyer-ingredients-fatty substance taken from a buffalo backbone
Depuyer was substitute bread for the Blackfoot tribe. Depuyer was made from a fatty substance from a buffalo's backbone. The Blackfoot tribe usually ate their depuyer with dried buffalo meat. Depuyer weighed from 5-11 pounds and was very filling. Depuyer was made by dipping the fatty substance from the backbone of a buffalo into hot grease then leaving it out in a smoke house for 12 hours. Once the depuyer is smoked it's told to be sweet, tender, and nourishing. In conclusion depuyer is very important to the Blackfoot tribe and if they didn't have it at the time their lives would have been very different. By:Radi

Waterfowl Eggs
In spring the Blackfoot tribe would collect duck and waterfowl eggs to eat. The Blackfoot tribe would boil the eggs in a dug up hole with water and hot stones to boil the water. Then, they would lay the eggs on sticks on top of the boiling water. After that, the eggs would cook with steam from the boiling water. In conclusion eating duck eggs may not be happening much now but at the time of the Blackfoot they couldn't get chicken eggs so they ate duck eggs. By:Radi


Waterfowl eggs
Waterfowl eggs



TOOLS/WEAPONS
The Blackfoot tribe had a variety of weapons and tools. The Blackfoot had weapons and tools such as bow and arrow, lances, axes, war clubs, kn
Blackfoot spear
Blackfoot spear

ives, and cooking utensils. Some of the Blackfoot tribe tools and weapons were made with buffalo bone and horns but some were also made with stone and wood. Most of the weapons the Blackfoot had were for hunting but some were for protecting themselves from other animals and tribes. The Blackfoot had many ways of killing buffalo one unique way was setting the grass on fire and forcing a buffalo to jump down a cliff this is now called the buffalo jump and other ways included shooting arrows and lances at the buffalo on horseback. The men in the tribe mostly did the hunting but very rarely females would join. The men also taught the children how to hunt. If the children did not know how to hunt they were not considered men .The females taught the female children how to cook, gather plants and berries, and how to make clothing. The Blackfoot tribe didn't have any guns, one reason for this is because they don’t really trust guns and another is that they couldn't have gotten their hands on guns at the time. In conclusion the Blackfoot were a tribe that relied on weapons for many reason were really good handling weapons and were smart in making them too.(lances, buffalo jump) By:Radi




TRANSPORTATION
In this I will tell you what the Blackfoot people used for their transportation.
Before horses were introduced the Blackfoot people used dogs and a dog pulling travois, a kind of drag sled.
And when horses were introduced the Blackfoot people called it ponokamita (elk dogs).
In water the Blackfoot people used canoes, but mostly they travelled by foot.
By: Muskan
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canoe
canoe

dog pulling travois
dog pulling travois


SHELTER
Have you ever wondered what type of shelter the Blackfoot tribe lived in? You came to the right place to find out, the Blackfoot tribe live in tipis also know as cone tents with a hole on top. Tipis are often made with 3-4 main poles, 20 support poles and 14-42 buffalo hides also they have to make room at the to for a smoke hole which will let out the smoke left by fires (under smoke hole). These tipis are very large to keep all bedrooms, kitchens, playrooms, living rooms and shed in the one and only space. Doors are always facing east (sun rise) and the entrance is in a shape of a "U". A wood pile will be near the door for use when needed to cook, be warm ect. The Blackfoot painted symbols/pictures on the tipis to protect the owner from many diseases sickness that can spread. Here is a fact, did you know if a person (mostly elderly) was found dead in a tipi, the tipi MUST NOT be used ever again and is to be just left there. Right now you think this might be a boring house but once your inside it you discover so many cool features that not even our modern day houses have, so don't think the past is boring because they don't have the technology that we are using right now because their technology is how we started everything.By:Raini
HISTORY
The history of the Blackfoot tribe was very simple, here is how it all began, they settled in Montana, Idaho and Alberta. The Blackfoot tribe was one of the most interesting and well known tribes before the years when the pilgrims first came to America. Their official language is Algonquin. But their two main languages were pikani and Siksika. The Blackfoot tribes power started to go down when the Europeans first came. People of the Blackfoot tribe were happy when the Europeans came because the Europeans brought horses with them. This was good for the Blackfoot tribe because the horses could help them hunt for buffalo All though the Europeans also brought a disease with them. The disease that was brought by the Europeans was called small pox disease. Small pox disease is a contagious, sometimes fatal and infectious disease. This disease is caused by the variola virus. The Blackfoot people chose their leaders by their ability to provide their needs for a group of families under his leadership. A good and successful leader would provide food for his group and lead them to shelter areas for camping and hunting. One of the main chiefs for the Blackfoot tribe was chief Crowfoot. Chief Crowfoot was one of the greatest chief in the Blackfoot tribe history. Crowfoot was born near the Blackfoot crossings. He was six feet tall. Chief Crowfoot was the leader for thirty years. Unfortunately chief Crowfoot died in April 1980. But it was much worst before in the 1800’s. In the 1800’s the American army came and more of the Blackfoot people were killed. Over all maybe the history of the Blackfoot tribe wasn't the like a Cinderella story but their history was great in their own way. By: Safa :)

ARTS/CRAFTS
Back then we had some mighty fine crafters who made the creativity in all of us, like by turning old bones into beautiful beads or using mushed up berries as paint, find out what the Blackfoot tribe did for crafting this paragraph. As it said on the shelter paragraph, the Blackfoot tribe painted pictures of symbols on the tipi to protect the people living inside and that's one of the many crafts they do. Also they do bead work where they sew many different beads on to a piece of used fabric so they can something more valuable of it. But have you ever thought of them making learning devices, these were toys for the young also turned into a learning tool so they play but they don't know they are learning (we should used those today too). Back then they didn't do crafts just for fun, the crafts including clothing, jewellery ect. which were used for a purpose. The Blackfoot are amazing carvers, they normally carve tree branches. They would also do porcupine quill work where they weave porcupine quills. So in conclusion The Blackfoot tribe was some was some awesome group who taught us many creativity tricks in art and crafts.
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Its all beads, every last stitch
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LEGENDS
The Blackfoot tribe had many legends but the one I am going to tell you about one it is called The Race. In this legend there is an old man who is just out walking one day and sees a group of rabbits singing and making medicine. The rabbits had made a fire and got lots of ashes and some of the rabbits would lay down and one of the rabbits would throw the ashes on the other rabbits and they would lay down in the ashes for a little while and get back up, because the ashes were really hot. Then the old man said to the rabbits he wants to try how it feels. So he lays down and the rabbits put ashes on him and then the old man says ‘that was very nice, now let me do it to you so I may learn’. Then all of the rabbits lay down and the old man puts a lot of coal and ashes on the rabbits. One of the rabbit gets up and says ‘pity me, my children are about to be born’ and goes away. Then he keeps all the rabbits in the fire until they are cooked. The old man sat down and was waiting for the rabbits to cool down when a coyote came limping to him. The coyote said ‘pity me, you have lots of cooked rabbits give one of them to me’. But the old man refused to give any of his rabbits to the coyote. Then at last the old man said ‘we will run a race to that butte, way out there, and if you beat me you can have a rabbit’. So the coyote agreed and the race began. The old man ran really fast, while the coyote limped behind him. When they got closer to the butte the coyote ran back really fast. By the time the old man came back to where the fire was set, the coyote had eaten up all the rabbits and was swallowing his last bite. Then the coyote trotted off over the prairie. I think that the message from the story was to be polite, nice and to share. You can find other legends at http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/Legends-AB.html#Blackfoot. By: Safa :)

LANGUAGES
Today most of the Blackfoot tribe speak English, but some speak their original language. The Blackfoot tribe had different dialects to wherever they lived. This was because slowly each tribe starts to move apart in the plains and over time the original Blackfoot language starts to change. Sometimes the tribes can’t even understand each other. Blackfoot is a musical language that has complicated verbs with many parts. Most Blackfoot words are very long and would be hard for an English speaker to pronounce but one easy word you may like to learn is oki (oh-kee) which means hello. Over all Blackfoot is a hard language to study and learn just like French. (dialect) By:Radi

CULTURE
The Blackfoot Tribe’s culture is very interesting. For marriages, the men get to choose the woman, but the woman must approve of the wedding or the men must find another woman. The men then shows to the woman’s father his skill, whether archer or warrior. If the father approves, the man and woman exchange gifts and horses and are pronounced married. Then the married couple make a tipi of their own near or with the husband’s family.By:Alex

CONCLUSION
We hope you have learned alot about the facinating Blackfoot tribe who made every dream we had into a reality, who started the life of all and who showed us how to live. Thank you to every one who read this and have a nice day ;) By:Raini
REFERENCES

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_did_the_blackfoot_Indians_make_their_houses_out_of
http://projects.cbe.ab.ca/ict/2learn/mmspeight/blackfoot/html/people.htp
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http://www.bigorrin.org/blackfoot_kids.htm
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http://www.kawvalley.k12.ks.us/schools/rjh/marneyg/archived_projects/02_plains-history/02_jmckenzie_weapons.htm
**http://www.bigorrin.org/blackfoot_kids.htm**
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/blackfoot-siksika
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http://wwwthesixthestate.blogspot.ca/2009/08/recent-teaching-in-china.html
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http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html- Legends/Legends-AB.html#Blackfoot